欢迎来到济南锦山绣水园林工程有限公司官方网站
热销产品关键词: 济南假山制作 济南上水石假山 济南庭院景观
产品 新闻
  • 济南上水石假山
  • 济南真石假山
  • 济南庭院景观
新闻中心
新闻中心
当前位置:首页 > 新闻中心 > 新闻中心 > 园林假山立面设计重“三点”

园林假山立面设计重“三点”

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/news/369.html  更新时间:2020-12-17
园林假山的关键在于空间的立面观赏,所以假山的立面设计才是假山造型设计的关键所在。 假山的立面造型必须以静力平衡为原则,即便是为了假山的艺术美,在其造型中出现不稳定感,但在结构力学上仍然必须做到按平衡分配法,获得静力平衡关系,以达到外形似不稳定中的内在平衡。具体而言,假山的立面设计应重体、面、线、纹等“三点”问题。
The key of the rockery lies in the vertical view of the space, so the facade design of the rockery is the key to the modeling design of the rockery. The facade modeling of rockery must be based on the principle of static balance. Even if it is for the artistic beauty of rockery, there is a sense of instability in its modeling, but in structural mechanics, it is still necessary to obtain the static balance relationship according to the balance distribution method, so as to achieve the internal balance in the appearance of instability. Specifically speaking, the facade design of rockery should pay attention to "three points" such as body, surface, line and grain.
体是指假山的体形,设计时除应充分考虑到视距与假山体量间的比例关系外,在具体的立面设计时,首先是它的体形,或高耸或平缓或巍峨或险峻,并对其山巅、山腰、山角等块体作出合理的布局和艺术处理,这方面的设计可充分借鉴中国传统山水画的画法来表达。对于立面设计的多个体形的组合,尤其是山峰的组合,我们也不妨借鉴一下空间三角形的组合方法。以苏州网师园“云冈”黄石假山为例,其所表现的是云雾缭绕的岩冈,摹拟的是自然景观中突兀耸立的硬质巨岩的断层地貌,三组于“天池”边突兀而起的黄石岩冈耸立于眼前,因而看不到左右的山脚,而其形成的却是断层岩体的层状结构节理,这与耦园黄石假山所选用的竖直而巨大的黄石岩块而形成的险峻山峰,形成了鲜明的对比。这种空间三角形组合的特点是在各个观赏视点上,不会造成重叠图象的现象。
Body refers to the shape of a rockery. In addition to the proportional relationship between the sight distance and the volume of the rockery, in the specific facade design, the first is its shape, which is high or gentle, towering or steep, and the reasonable layout and artistic treatment of the blocks such as the top, waist and corner of the mountain should be made. The design of this aspect can fully draw on the painting method of traditional Chinese landscape painting 。 For the combination of multiple figures in facade design, especially the combination of mountain peaks, we may as well refer to the combination method of spatial triangles. Taking the Huangshi rockery of "Yungang" in wangshiyuan of Suzhou as an example, it shows the Rock Hill surrounded by clouds and imitates the fault landform of hard rock in the natural landscape. Three groups of Huangshi rockery stand out in front of the "Tianchi" side, so the left and right foot of the mountain can not be seen, but the layered structural joints of fault rock mass are formed, which is similar to the Huangshi rockery in Juyuan The steep mountain peaks formed by the vertical and huge Huangshi rock block are in sharp contrast. The feature of this kind of spatial triangle combination is that it will not cause the phenomenon of overlapping images in each viewing point.
面是指一座假山在空间立面上所呈现出来的平、曲、凹、凸、虚、实等观赏质感。立面设计切忌铜墙铁壁式的平直,而应该利用石块的大小、纹理、凹凸以及洞壑等显示出明暗对比,正如画论所云:“而其凹处,天光所不到,石之纹理晦暗而色黑;至其凸处,承受天光,非无纹理,因其明亮而色常浅。”(沈宗骞《芥舟学画编》)如苏州耦园黄石叠砌的临水石壁,用横竖石块,大小相间,凹凸错杂,其与真山无异;而太湖石假山则应用大小石块钩带成涡、洞、皱纹等。同时,叠石应以大块为主,小块为辅,石与石之间应有距离,这样可在光照下形成阴影,或利于植物生长,否则满拓灰浆,会造成寸草不生,了无生趣,这就是所谓的“雅从兼于半土”。一般对整体立面的近山,常采取上凸、中凹、下直的手法来处理其面层结构;而如果是远山,则多用余脉坡脚,以体现其“远山审其势,近山观其质”。
It refers to the surface of a mountain, which is concave, convex, and so on. The facade design should avoid the straightness and straightness of the bronze wall, but should use the size, texture, concave convex and hollow of the stone to show the contrast between light and shade. As the painting theory says, "the concave part of the stone can not reach the sky light, and the texture of the stone is dark and black; to its convex part, it bears the sky light, not without texture, because of its bright and often light color." (Shen Zongqian's painting by mustard boat) for example, the stone wall built by Huangshi in Suzhou's coupling garden is made of horizontal and vertical stones, alternating in size and uneven in shape, which is similar to the real mountain; while the stone rockery in Taihu Lake is made up of large and small stones to form vortices, holes and wrinkles. At the same time, the stacking stones should be mainly large blocks, supplemented by small ones, and there should be a distance between the stones, so as to form shadows under the light, or be conducive to the growth of plants. Otherwise, full expansion of mortar will lead to no growth of grass and no interest. This is the so-called "elegance and obedience combined with half soil". Generally, for the whole facade near the mountain, the surface structure is often treated by convex, concave and straight down; if it is a remote mountain, the foot of the residual vein slope is often used to reflect the "judging the potential from the far mountain and observing the quality near the mountain".
线是指整座假山的外形轮廓线或局部层次轮廓线的综合。如留园中部的主山,其塑造的是平远山水中的远山景象,所以采用了水平状起伏的局部层次轮廓线,以求与辽阔弥漫的水面相协调。而环秀山庄的假山,将其主峰置于前部,利用左右的峡谷和较低峰峦作衬托,其立面从山麓到山顶,设计成若干条由低到高的斜向轮廓线,由东向西,犹如山脉奔注,忽然断为悬岩峭壁,止于池边,“似乎处大山之麓,截溪断谷”,其正如音乐的节奏和旋律一般,从低至强,起伏多变。
Line refers to the synthesis of the contour line of the whole rockery or the local level contour line. For example, the main mountain in the central part of Liuyuan garden is the scene of distant mountains in Pingyuan mountains and rivers. Therefore, the horizontal undulating local level contour line is adopted to coordinate with the vast and diffuse water surface. The rockery of Huanxiu mountain villa, with its main peak at the front, uses the left and right canyons and lower mountains as a backdrop. Its facade from the foothills to the top of the mountain is designed into a number of oblique contour lines from low to high. From east to west, it is like a mountain running, suddenly breaking into a hanging rock cliff and ending at the edge of the pool. "It seems to be at the foot of a mountain, cutting off the stream and cutting off the valley". It is just like the rhythm and melody of music, From low to strong, ups and downs.