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置石与假山布置、假山结构设施

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/news/355.html  更新时间:2020-10-28
山的材料和采运方法、置石与假山布置、假山结构设施等。假山工程是园林建设的专业工程,人们通常所说的“假山工程”实际上包括假山和置石两部分。
The materials and methods of mining and transportation, the arrangement of stone and rockery, and the facilities of rockery structure, etc. Rockery project is a professional project of garden construction. What people usually call "rockery project" actually includes rockery and stone setting.
我国园林中的假山技术是以造景和提供游览为主要目的,同时还兼有一些其它功能。假山是以土、石等为材料,以自然山水为蓝本并加以艺术提炼与夸张,用人工再造的山水景物。至于零星山石的点缀称为“置石”,主要表现山石的个体美或局部的组合。
The rockery technology in Chinese gardens is mainly aimed at landscape making and providing sightseeing, and also has some other functions. Rockery is a landscape which is made of soil and stone, and is based on natural landscape and is refined and exaggerated by art and reconstructed by artificial. As for the scattered stone ornament is called "setting stone", mainly showing the individual beauty or local combination of the mountain stones.
济南假山制作
假山的体量大,可观可游,使人们仿佛置于大自然之中,而置石则以观赏为主,体量小而分散。假山和置石首先可作为自然山水园的主景和地形骨架,如南京瞻园、上海豫园、扬州个园、苏州环秀山庄等采用主景突出方式的园林,皆以山为主、水为辅,建筑处于次要地位甚至点缀。其次可作为园林划分空间和组织空间的手段,常用于集锦式布局的园林,如圆明园利用土山分隔景区、颐和园以仁寿殿西面土石相间的假山作为划分空间和障景的手段。
The rockery is large in volume and can be seen, making people seem to be in nature, while stone is mainly ornamental, small and scattered. Rockery and stone can first be used as the main landscape and terrain skeleton of natural landscape garden, such as Nanjing Zhanyuan, Shanghai Yu Garden, Yangzhou garden, Suzhou Wuxiu villa and so on. The gardens with main landscape prominence are mainly mountain and water supplemented, and the buildings are subordinate or even embellished. Secondly, it can be used as a means of dividing space and organizing space, and is often used in garden with brocade layout, such as Yuanming garden, which uses earth mountain to separate scenic spots, and Summer Palace takes rockery with earth rock in the west of Renshou hall as the means of dividing space and barrier landscape.
运用山石小品作为点缀园林空间和陪衬建筑、植物的手段。假山可平衡土方、叠石可作驳岸、护坡、汀石、和花台、室内处自然式的家具或器设,如石凳、石桌、石护栏等。它们将假山的造景功能与实用功能巧妙地结合在一起,成为我国造园技术中的瑰宝。
The use of small stone as a decorative garden space and supporting buildings, plants means. The rockery can balance the earth, and the stacking of stones can be used as revetment, slope protection, stone, flower platform, indoor natural furniture or equipment, such as stone stool, stone table, stone guardrail, etc. They combine the landscape function and practical function of rockery skillfully, and become the treasure of garden making technology in China.
假山因使用的材料不同,分为土山、石山及土、石相间的山。常见的假山材料有:湖石(包括太湖石、房山石、英石等)、黄石、青石、石笋(包括白果笋、乌炭笋、慧笋、钟乳石笋等)以及其它石品(如木化石、松皮石、石珊瑚等)。
Rockery is divided into soil mountain, stone mountain and soil and stone mountain because of different materials used. Common rockery materials include: Lake stone (including Taihu stone, Fangshan stone, British stone, etc.), Yellowstone, green stone, stalagmite (including white fruit shoot, black charcoal shoot, wisdom shoot, stalactite stalagmite, etc.) and other stone products (such as wood fossil, pine peel stone, stone coral, etc.).