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假山是怎么制作的?

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/industry/456.html  更新时间:2021-11-25
目前国内主流的水泥假山制作,根据制作工艺不同,可以分为两种,分别是手工与模印。这两种方法不同在于山体纹理的刻画。手工制作方法是通过制作人员的经验、想象力,手工制作假山的纹理;模印制作方法则是把事先准备好的山石纹理,直接印在假山上(此方法制作出来的假山比较呆板)。
At present, the mainstream cement rockery production in China can be divided into two types according to different production processes: manual and die printing. The difference between the two methods lies in the description of mountain texture. The manual production method is to manually make the texture of rockery through the experience and imagination of production personnel; The mold printing method is to directly print the prepared mountain stone texture on the rockery (the rockery produced by this method is relatively rigid).
一、制作骨架
1、 Make skeleton
假山骨架可以分为钢骨架和砖骨架,一般情况下,中、大型的水泥假山,需要采用钢骨架,室内、阳台、庭院等小型假山可以采用砖骨架。
Rockery skeleton can be divided into steel skeleton and brick skeleton. Generally, medium and large cement rockeries need steel skeleton, and indoor, balcony, courtyard and other small rockeries can use brick skeleton.
1.钢骨架制作:主材料为50×50×5角钢,次要处用30×30×3角钢,涂刷锈漆进行防锈处理。横向及竖向均焊接间距为1.5米的井字型角钢架,连接采用焊接方式;接触外部钢筋架部分,焊接剪刀支撑(加固)。钢骨架的制作需要电焊工人
1. Fabrication of steel framework: the main material is 50 × fifty × 5 angle steel, 30 for minor parts × thirty × 3. Angle steel shall be painted with rust paint for rust prevention treatment. The well shaped angle steel frame with a spacing of 1.5m shall be welded horizontally and vertically, and the connection shall be welded; Contact the external reinforcement frame part and weld the scissors support (reinforcement). The fabrication of steel framework requires electric welders
2.砖骨架制作:用废旧砖石材料砌筑起来,砖石砌筑的形状大致与设计者设计的假山模型形状差不多。为了节省材料,可在砌体内砌出内空的石室,然后用钢筋混凝土板盖顶,留出门洞和通气口。当砌体胚形完全砌筑好后。
2. Brick skeleton making: it is built with waste brick and stone materials, and the shape of brick and stone masonry is roughly the same as that of the rockery model designed by the designer. In order to save materials, an empty stone chamber can be built in the masonry, and then the top can be covered with reinforced concrete slab, leaving door openings and vents. When the masonry embryo is completely built.
二、铺设钢丝网
2、 Laying steel wire mesh
水泥假山制作采用的钢丝网一般为:6mm的网孔、丝径在0.3-0.5mm之间更为合适。在骨架制作完成后,用Φ6圆钢进行钢丝网制作,钢丝网方格控制在18×18-25×25cm2左右,根据模型塑造初凸凹起伏的自然外形。
The steel wire mesh used in the production of cement rockery is generally 6mm mesh, and the wire diameter between 0.3-0.5mm is more suitable. After the skeleton is made, use Φ 6. Steel wire mesh shall be made of round steel, and the steel wire mesh grid shall be controlled at 18 × 18-25 × About 25cm2, shape the natural shape of initial convex concave fluctuation according to the model.
在钢丝网覆盖假山后,将规格为3×1/4(4目)的铁丝,将钢丝网牢牢绑扎在假山骨架上。
After the steel wire mesh covers the rockery, the specification will be 3 × 1 / 4 (4 mesh) iron wire, firmly bind the steel wire mesh to the rockery skeleton.
假山钢丝网铺设完成后的图片
Picture of rockery steel wire mesh after laying
三、山体抹灰
3、 Mountain plastering
挂水泥沙浆以成石脉与皱纹,水泥沙浆中可以加纤维性附加了以增加了表面抗拉的力量,减少裂缝。铁丝绑扎完成,用混凝土砂浆进行基层抹灰,厚度1-1.5cm左右;一次完成后,进行二次抹灰,厚度为1.5cm左右。在假山外露部分的两层抹灰完成后,及时进行假山内部砂浆的抹制,厚度为1cm左右。
Hang cement mortar to form stone veins and wrinkles. Fiber can be added to the cement mortar to increase the surface tensile force and reduce cracks. After the iron wire binding is completed, the base course shall be plastered with concrete mortar, with a thickness of about 1-1.5cm; After the primary plastering, the secondary plastering shall be carried out with a thickness of about 1.5cm. After the two layers of plastering of the exposed part of the rockery are completed, the mortar inside the rockery shall be plastered in time, with a thickness of about 1cm.
四、山体造型
4、 Mountain modeling
1.模具制作:
1. Mold making:
(1)选择好自然山,先做表面的清理工作,做到表面无泥土杂质。
(1) Select the natural mountain and clean the surface first to ensure that the surface is free of soil and impurities.
(2)用固体蜡刷的过程中凝固和液体蜡流出空白以1:2的比例加热熔化,刷于表面作为隔离剂。(要求均匀周到可刷两次,但无蜡迹)
(2) During the process of solid wax brushing, the solidified and liquid wax flows out of the blank, is heated and melted in the ratio of 1:2, and is brushed on the surface as an isolating agent. (it shall be uniform and considerate, and can be brushed twice, but there is no wax mark)
(3)模具胶可采用聚铵脂胶甲、乙料配比1:1.5搅拌合成。用毛刷刷于山石表面(注意薄厚要均匀)
(3) The mold glue can be synthesized by stirring with the ratio of polyurethane glue a and B 1:1.5. Brush the rock surface with a brush (pay attention to uniform thickness)
(4)一层胶初凝时,用纤维布(剪成小块,白色孔为0.2mm~0.25mm)粘在石上,
(4) During the initial setting of a layer of glue, stick it on the stone with fiber cloth (cut into small pieces with white holes of 0.2mm ~ 0.25mm),
然后再刷二层胶在纤维布(为了与第三层更好的结合),再刷第三层胶可刷厚一些,但不要露出布丝或布茬,要平整。这样软模就完成了。
Then brush the second layer of glue on the fiber cloth (for better combination with the third layer), and then brush the third layer of glue, which can be thicker, but do not expose the cloth wire or cloth stubble, and be flat. So the soft mold is finished.
2.假山纹理印制:
2. Rockery texture printing:
在印制假山纹理的时候,一定要掌握混凝土砂浆的“火候”,不能太干,也不能太湿,混凝土砂浆干至8成左右,印制假山纹理是佳时机。
When printing rockery texture, we must master the "fire" of concrete mortar, which can not be too dry or too wet. When the concrete mortar is dry to about 80%, printing rockery texture is a good time.
根据所塑山石的位置及其作用,选择合适的氧化铁颜料进行调制、上色。在塑石水分未干透时进行,基本色调用颜料粉和水泥加水拌匀,逐层洒染。上色步骤如下:
According to the position and function of the molded mountain stone, appropriate iron oxide pigment is selected for modulation and coloring. When the plastic stone is not completely dry, mix the basic tone with pigment powder and cement, add water, and sprinkle and dye layer by layer. The coloring steps are as follows:
(1)喷封闭底色;
(1) Spray closed background color;
(2)着一次色(3层);
(2) Primary color (3 layers);
(3)二次补色(阴暗色);
(3) Secondary complementary color (dark color);
(4)喷面油封色。
(4) Spray oil seal color.
在石缝孔洞或阴角部位略洒稍深的色调,待塑石九成干时,在凹陷处洒上少许绿、黑或白色等大小、疏密不同的斑点,以增强立体感和自然感。
Sprinkle a little darker color on the stone joint hole or internal corner. When the plastic stone is 90% dry, sprinkle a little green, black or white spots with different sizes and densities on the depression to enhance the three-dimensional and natural feeling.
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