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园林假山立面设计重“三点”

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/industry/441.html  更新时间:2021-09-29
园林假山的关键在于空间的立面观赏,所以假山的立面设计才是假山造型设计的关键所在。假山的立面造型必须以静力平衡为原则,即便是为了假山的艺术美,在其造型中出现不稳定感,但在结构力学上仍然必须做到按平衡分配法,获得静力平衡关系,以达到外形似不稳定中的内在平衡。具体而言,假山的立面设计应重体、面、线、纹等“三点”问题。
The key of garden rockery lies in the facade viewing of space, so the facade design of rockery is the key of rockery modeling design. The facade modeling of rockery must be based on the principle of static balance. Even for the artistic beauty of rockery, there is a sense of instability in its modeling, but in structural mechanics, the static balance relationship must be obtained according to the balance distribution method, so as to achieve the internal balance in the appearance seems unstable. Specifically, the facade design of rockery should focus on "three points" such as body, surface, line and pattern.
体是指假山的体形,设计时除应充分考虑到视距与假山(被观赏景物)体量间的比例关系外,在具体的立面设计时,首先是它的体形,或高耸或平缓或巍峨或险峻,并对其山巅、山腰、山角等块体作出合理的布局和艺术处理,这方面的设计可充分借鉴中国传统山水画的画法来表达。对于立面设计的多个体形的组合,尤其是山峰的组合,我们也不妨借鉴一下空间三角形的组合方法。
The body refers to the body shape of the rockery. In addition to fully considering the proportional relationship between the sight distance and the volume of the rockery (ornamental scenery), in the specific facade design, the first thing is its body shape, or high or gentle, or towering or steep, and make reasonable layout and artistic treatment for its mountain top, hillside, mountain corner and other blocks, The design of this aspect can fully draw lessons from the painting method of traditional Chinese landscape painting. For the combination of multiple shapes in facade design, especially the combination of mountains, we might as well learn from the combination method of spatial triangles.
面是指一座假山在空间立面上所呈现出来的平、曲、凹、凸、虚、实等观赏质感。立面设计切忌铜墙铁壁式的平直,而应该利用石块的大小、纹理、凹凸以及洞壑等显示出明暗对比,正如画论所云:“而其凹处,天光所不到,石之纹理晦暗而色黑;至其凸处,承受天光,非无纹理,因其明亮而色常浅。”
Surface refers to the flat, curved, concave, convex, virtual, real and other ornamental textures of a rockery on the spatial facade. The facade design should avoid the straightness of copper walls and iron walls, but should use the size, texture, concave convex and holes and gullies of stones to show the contrast between light and shade. As the painting theory says: "the concave part can not be seen by the sky light, and the texture of stones is dark and black; to its convex part, it can bear the sky light, not without texture, and the color is often light because of its brightness."
线是指整座假山的外形轮廓线或局部层次轮廓线的综合。如留园中部的主山,其塑造的是平远山水中的远山景象,所以采用了水平状起伏的局部层次轮廓线,以求与辽阔弥漫的水面相协调。而环秀山庄的假山,将其主峰置于前部,利用左右的峡谷和较低峰峦作衬托,其立面从山麓到山顶,设计成若干条由低到高的斜向轮廓线,由东向西,犹如山脉奔注,忽然断为悬岩峭壁,止于池边,“似乎处大山之麓,截溪断谷”(张南垣语),其正如音乐的节奏和旋律一般,从低至强,起伏多变,直至高潮。
Line refers to the overall contour line of the whole rockery or the synthesis of local hierarchical contour lines. For example, the main mountain in the middle of Liuyuan garden shapes the distant mountain scene in Pingyuan landscape, so the horizontal undulating local level contour is adopted to coordinate with the vast and diffuse water surface. The rockery of Huanxiu mountain villa places its main peak in the front, which is set off by the left and right canyons and lower peaks. Its facade is designed into several oblique contours from low to high from the foot of the mountain to the top of the mountain. From east to west, it is like a mountain rushing, suddenly breaking into hanging rock cliffs and ending at the edge of the pool. "It seems to be at the foot of a big mountain, cutting streams and valleys" (Zhang Nanyuan's words), It is just like the rhythm and melody of music, from low to strong, ups and downs to climax.