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园林假山造景需要注意的布局手法

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-21-42-1.html  更新时间:2017-05-15
  在风景区、公园、房地产小区等地,特别是我们常常在电影电视里面看到,我们会看见很多假山,可见假山在园林景观中应用之广泛。如今随着新工艺技术的研发,水泥雕塑工艺技术的提高,现今我们平时看到的假山大都是通过水泥人工塑造制作而成的。
  In the scenic area, parks, real estate, residential area, etc, in particular, we often see in movies and television, we will see a lot of rockery, visible rockery of widely applied in the landscape. Nowadays with the development of new process technology, the improvement of cement sculpture technology, nowadays we see at ordinary times the rockery is mostly by cement artificial shape is made and be become.
  如何才能做出如此精巧的假山呢?在园林造景中,假山制作也需要通过合理的布局,与周边环境相融合,才能发挥其山水特色。下面我们就一起来看看园林景观造景中假山常用的布局手法。
  How do you make this elaborate fake mountain? In landscape architecture, the construction of the fake mountain also needs to be properly laid out in order to be integrated with the surrounding environment, so that it can be used in the landscape. Now let's take a look at the usual layout techniques used in landscape architecture.
  人工塑石假山整体布局要讲究主次分明,疏密有致,讲究开合,虚实相生,藏露结合,以小见大。
  The whole layout of man-made stone rockery is to pay attention to the main time, to be clear and clear, to be elegant, to be honest, to hide the combination of the dew, and to be small.
  一、主次分明
  One, the main time is distinct
  塑山所造山石的风格、质地须一致,色彩、纹理、脉络应自然变化。塑石假山主峰的位置虽然不一定要布置在假山区的中部地带,但却一定要在假山山系结构核心的位置上。主峰位置也不宜在山系的正中,而应当偏于一侧,以避免山系平面布局呈现对称状态。主峰的高度及体量,一般应比第二山峰高,以充分突出主峰的主体地位,做到主次分明。
  The style and texture of the mountain stone made by plastic mountain should be consistent, and the color, texture and vein should change naturally. The location of the main peak of the rockery is not necessarily in the middle of the rockery, but it must be in the center of the rockery. The main peak should not be in the middle of the mountain system, but should be on one side to avoid the symmetry of the layout of the mountain series. The height and body mass of the main peak should be higher than the second peak, so as to fully highlight the dominant position of the main peak, and make the primary and distinct.
  另外,山的形状、大小、高低必须有变化,山峰自然高低错落,参差不齐;山腰线要流畅,左右要有变化,一边坡度陡,一边坡度缓,使山的造型形成一种动势;山脚要有回抱、曲折,线条要流利自如,以突出假山中水的柔软。
  In addition, the shape, size and height of the mountain must be changed. The mountain-waist line should be smooth, the left and right sides should be changed, and the slope is steep, and the slope is slow, making the shape of the mountain a kind of electromotive force. The foot of the mountain should be held back, zigzagging, the line should be fluent and comfortable, in order to highlight the softness of water in the fake mountain.
  二、疏密有致
  Second, it is unrelable
  塑山的石纹石脉分布不可平均,应该自然分布。山石皴纹、群峰位置、植物点缀、小品配置等疏密有致。通常主峰一带是最密处,山石树木布置得密,配峰相对稀疏。
  The stone veins in the plastic mountain are not evenly distributed and should be distributed naturally. It is a kind of hard work, such as the grain, the peak position, the ornament of the plants, the configuration of the small items. Usually the main peak is the closest, and the mountain and stone trees are decorated with relatively sparse peaks.
  三、讲究开合
  Three, be elegant
  在园林假山的艺术造型中,开是起势,合是收尾。立峰是开,坡脚是合,近山是开,远山是合。一般假山布局都是由3至4个开合交替出现,体现出节奏韵律。
  In the art form of the garden rockery, the open is the potential, the close is the end. The mount peak is open, the foot of the slope is close, the near mountain is open, the long mountain is the sum. In general, the layout of the rockery is composed of three to four alternating current, which reflects rhythm rhythm.
  四、虚实相生
  Four, false reality is born
  在假山艺术中,常用虚实对比的方法来突出假山的艺术境界。所谓艺术境界是指用园林假山所表现的假山真实景观(称为实境),来突出某种深远的意境(称为虚境)。叠山置石十分讲究内收而后突兀的形态,以山洞取“虚”得其深远,后突取“实”得其造险。假山艺术由模仿真实的自然山体而逐渐发展开来。“虽有人造,宛自天开”是假山艺术的最高境界。因此,假山艺术是人工与自然的和谐相生,在“真中有假,以假乱真”中体现虚实相生的意境。
  In the art of rockery, the art of the fake mountain is highlighted by using the method of false contrast. The artistic boundary refers to the real landscape (called the reality) of the rockery, which is represented by the park, to highlight some kind of far-reaching artistic conception (called the virtual reality). The mountain stones are very exquisite in the form of the internal harvest and the sudden appearance of the cave, and the "virtual" in the cave is far-reaching, and then the "real" is taken by the "real". The art of rockery is developed by imitation of the real nature. "Although there is an artificial, the sky is open" is the highest state of the art of artificial mountain. Therefore, the art of the rockery is the harmony between artificial and nature, in "true and false, in the false and real", which embodies the artistic conception of the false reality.
  五、藏露结合
  Five, hide the dew to combine
  露中有藏、藏中有露,即园林假山要展现出一个景外有景、景中生情的动人画面,产生深远意境。假山的藏露,最关键的是峰峦要有立体布局,产生前后掩映,表现出“崇山峻岭”之感。另外,空白处理在园林假山造景中也起到十分重要的作用。明、清文人画家将山水画留出大量空白隐藏了大山大水,画面呈现一种空旷渺漠的境界,可谓“此处无声胜有声”。园林假山造景的空白处理与其有异曲同工之妙。两者在空间处理上都采用“藏露结合”的手法。空白在假山中所占空间的大小,对整个布局效果起着重要的作用。
  There are hidden and hidden in the dew, which means that the garden rockery will show a moving picture of the scenery and the scenery of the landscape, creating a far-reaching artistic conception. The most important thing is that the mountain should have a three-dimensional layout, which can be seen in front and back, and show the feeling of "mountains and mountains". In addition, white space processing plays an important role in landscape architecture. Ming and qing literati painters will conceal mountains and waters landscape painting to set aside a large number of blank and the picture presents a kind of open are the border of the desert, is a "silent even here". The white space of the landscape of the garden is different from the other. Both use the technique of "hiding and combining" in spatial processing. The size of the space in the fake mountain is a significant part of the overall layout effect.
  六、以小见大
  Six, to be small
  叠山置石,令人产生身临其境之感,得益于师法自然。叠山置石在造园中,山、石是营造景观不可缺少的载体。人们立足于山脚仰视高山,视线受到阻碍,只能看到眼前山体的局部。这时,虽不见整体景观却依然感受到雄伟壮丽,浮想联翩。假山布局正是利用这一特点,将假山置于一个较小的空间内,在塑造山体时不必塑造完全与真山相同的体积规模,只需塑造部分或微缩山体仿出真山的气质,使观赏者只能仰视而产生山外有山、意犹未尽的联想。这种以局部景观寓意整体景观的表现技法,充分体现了假山布局“以小见大”的艺术特点。
  The stone of the mountain, the feeling of being on the ground, is helped by the natural method of teachers' law. In the building of gardens, mountains and stones are indispensable carriers for the landscape. People are standing on the mountain, looking up at the mountains, and they can only see the parts of the mountain. At that moment, though the whole landscape is not seen, it still feels majestic and magnificent, the imagination of the imagination. Rockery layout is the use of this characteristic, will put in a smaller space, in shaping the mountain without shape completely the same as the real mountain volume size, simply shaped part or miniature mountain imitates the true temperament of the mountain, make the viewer can only look up and behind the mountains there are people, wanting more association. This kind of local landscape means the performance of the whole landscape, which fully reflects the artistic characteristics of the layout of the rockery.
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