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济南假山制作的三个要素

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-21-322-1.html  更新时间:2020-06-23
庭院景观中的假山成败得失关键就在于假山设计,而山立面设计才是假山造型设计的关键所在。 假山工程的立面造型必须以静力平衡为原则,即便是为了假山的艺术美,在其造型中出现不稳定感,但在结构力学上仍然必须做到按平衡分配法,获得静力平衡关系,以达到外形似不稳定中的内在平衡。假山制作的立面设计应重体、面、线、纹等“三点”问题。
The key to success or failure of rockery in courtyard landscape lies in rockery design, and the design of mountain facade is the key to rockery design. The facade modeling of rockery engineering must be based on the principle of static balance. Even for the artistic beauty of rockery, there is a sense of instability in its modeling, but in the structural mechanics, it is still necessary to achieve the static balance relationship according to the balance distribution method, so as to achieve the internal balance in the appearance similar to instability. The facade design of rockery production should pay attention to the three problems of body, surface, line and pattern.
一般对整体立面的近山,常采取上凸、中凹、下直的手法来处理其面层结构;而如果是大型假山工程,则多用余脉坡脚,以体现其“远山审其势,近山观其质”。一座假山在空间立面上所呈现出来的平、曲、凹、凸、虚、实等观赏质感。假山工程中假山的立面设计切忌铜墙铁壁式的平直,而应该利用石块的大小、纹理、凹凸以及洞壑等显示出明暗对比。同时,假山制作材料叠石应以大块为主,小块为辅,石与石之间应有距离,这样可在光照下形成阴影,或利于植物生长,否则满拓灰浆,会造成寸草不生,了无生趣。
Generally, for the whole elevation near the mountain, the method of convex, concave and straight down is often adopted to deal with its surface structure; and if it is a large-scale rockery project, the foot of the vein slope is often used to reflect its "far mountain to examine its potential, near mountain to see its quality". A rockery in the spatial facade of the flat, curved, concave, convex, virtual, real and other ornamental texture. The facade design of rockery in rockery engineering should avoid the straightness of copper wall and iron wall, but should use the size, texture, concave and convex of stones and holes to show the contrast between light and shade. At the same time, the rockwork material should be made of large blocks, supplemented by small blocks. There should be a distance between the stones, so that the shadow can be formed under the light, or it is conducive to the growth of plants. Otherwise, full expansion of mortar will result in no grass and no interest.

 
整座假山设计的外形轮廓线或局部层次轮廓线的综合。最后才能组成如音乐的节奏和旋律一般,从低至强,起伏多变,直至高潮。
The synthesis of the contour line of the whole rockery design or the contour line of the local level. Finally, it can be composed like the rhythm and melody of music, from low to strong, fluctuating and changeable, until the climax.
假山工程中假山的体形,设计时应充分考虑到视距与假山(被观赏景物)体量间的比例关系,具体的立面设计:首先体形或高耸或平缓或巍峨或险峻,其山巅、山腰、山角等块体作出合理的布局和艺术处理,这方面的设计可充分借鉴中国传统山水画的画法来表达。对于立面设计的多个体形的组合,尤其是山峰的组合,我们也不妨借鉴一下空间三角形的组合方法。
In the design of rockery, the proportion between the sight distance and the volume of rockery (the scenery to be viewed) should be fully considered. For the specific facade design, first of all, the rockery should be tall, gentle, towering or precipitous, with reasonable layout and artistic treatment for its mountaintops, mountainsides, mountain corners, etc., which can be fully expressed by drawing on the traditional Chinese landscape painting. For the combination of multiple body shapes in facade design, especially the combination of mountains, we may also use the combination method of spatial triangles for reference.
所以说庭院景观假山设计是需要在一定的空间内将假山的若干个组合单元度势布局,相宜构筑的。假山工程中假山平面的安排也是要与假山工程实际场地的具体情况相吻合,这样才能使得假山在庭院景观内真正起到烘托的作用。
Therefore, the design of garden landscape rockery needs to lay out several combination units of rockery in a certain space, which is suitable for construction. The arrangement of the rockery plane in the rockery project should also be consistent with the specific situation of the actual site of the rockery project, so as to make the rockery really play a role of foil in the courtyard landscape.