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假山制作的艺术性有哪些

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-21-216-1.html  更新时间:2019-04-16
  随着社会的进步,建筑行业的高速发展。人们居住环境改变成了钢铁深林。让人们的精神越发的紧张起来,如同关在“牢笼”之中。 然而 每个人都向往自然,希望能回归于自然的怀抱之中。因此,人类不仅在生产上要改造自然;在艺术上,也经常改造自然。鲁迅说“所见天物,非必圆满,再现之际,当加改造。”这表明艺术反映自然,不光是暮写,而应比第一自然更集中,更强烈,更美。现在我们就来谈谈假山造景,景观艺术的一些心得。
  With the progress of society, the construction industry develops at a high speed. People's living environment has changed into a deep forest of iron and steel. Let people's spirits become more and more tense, as if locked in a "cage". However, everyone yearns for nature, hoping to return to the embrace of nature. Therefore, human beings need to transform nature not only in production, but also in art. Lu Xun said, "What you see is not necessarily perfect. When it comes to reappearance, it should be reformed." This shows that art reflects nature, not only in the twilight, but more concentrated, stronger and more beautiful than the first nature. Now let's talk about the experience of rockery landscaping and landscape art.
  有章法,则更能显示出山的嵯峨之气势,甚有力度。
  With rules and regulations, it can better show the magnificent momentum of the mountains, very powerful.
  一.是险峻。真山之美,一在巍峨雄健,二在险峻挺拔。假山虽小,但其姿态气质不亚于真山之雄伟和奇险。要做到险峻之势,有一个办法是其下部宜小不宜大,宜空透不宜闭实。堆山之不好看,其中一个原因就是山的下部太肥太闷,缺乏险峻之感。 特别是立峰、单石、更须重视险峻之美。大凡名贵的单石、立峰,均具有险峻之美。江南三大名石:苏州的瑞云峰、上海豫园的玉玲珑、杭州的绉云峰,除其轮廊线、虚实关系,都符合山石之审美准则,更美在险峻。
  First, it is steep. The beauty of the real mountain lies in its majesty and vigor, and in its steepness and uprightness. Although the rockery is small, its attitude and temperament are no less magnificent and dangerous than the real mountain. To achieve the steep situation, one way is that its lower part should be small rather than large, and should be air-permeable rather than solid. One of the reasons why the hills are so ugly is that the lower part of the hills is too fat and stuffy and lacks the sense of steepness. Especially for the peaks and single stones, we should pay more attention to the beauty of steepness. All precious single stones and peaks have precipitous beauty. Three famous stones in the south of the Yangtze River: Rui Yunfeng of Suzhou, Yu Ling Long of Shanghai's Yu Garden, and Zhou Yunfeng of Hangzhou, all of them are in line with the aesthetic standards of mountains and rocks, but more beautiful and steep.
  二.是意境。山之意境有不同的类别。人常言泰山以雄著称,黄山以奇著称,华山险,峨眉秀,庐山迷,审美特征不同。假山也须选一种审美倾向,然后刻意追求之。假山是一种艺术,其意境应当是山,而不要去做拟是而非的龙、虎之类。这种具象不免俗气。
  Second, the artistic conception. The artistic conception of mountains has different categories. It is often said that Mount Tai is famous for its heroism, Mount Huangshan is famous for its peculiarity, Huashan is dangerous, Emeixiu is beautiful, and Mount Lushan fans have different aesthetic characteristics. Rockery also needs to choose an aesthetic tendency, and then deliberately pursue it. Rockery is an art. Its artistic conception should be mountain, not dragon or tiger. Such representations are vulgar.
  三.石假山局部造型方法:
  3. Local modeling methods of rockery:
  (1)峰:
  (1) Peak:
  掇山为取得远观的山势以及加强山顶环境的山林气氛,而有峰峦的创作。人工堆叠的山除大山以建筑来突出加强高峻之势(如北海白塔、颐和园佛香阁外,一般多以叠石来表现山峰的挺拔险峻之势。山峰有主次之分,主峰居于显著的位置,次峰无论在高度、体积或姿态等方面均次于主峰。峰石可由单块石块形成,也可多块叠掇而成。“峰石一块者,理宜上大下小,立之可观。或峰石两块三块拼缀,亦宜上大下小,似有飞舞势。或数块掇成,亦如前式;须得两三大石封顶”苏氏山水(山月园)。峰石的选用和堆叠必须和整个山形相协调,大小比例恰当。巍峨而陡峭的山形,峰态应尖削,具峻拔之势。以石横纹参差层叠而成的假山,石峰均横向堆叠,有如山水画的卷云皴,这样、立峰有如祥云冉冉升起,能取得较好的审美效果。峦岭岫的区分是相对而言的,相互之间的界阈不是很分明。但峰峦连延,“不可齐,亦不可笔架式,或高或低,随致乱掇,不排比为妙”
  In order to get a long view of the mountain and strengthen the mountain forest atmosphere of the mountain top environment, there are mountains and mountains created. Artificially stacked mountains, in addition to the mountains to highlight the building to strengthen the high and steep situation (such as the White Pagoda in Beihai, the Summer Palace Foxiang Pavilion), generally use stacked stones to show the high and precipitous situation of the peak. The main peak is in a prominent position, and the secondary peak is next to the main peak in height, volume or posture. Peak stones can be formed by single stones or by multiple stacks. "Those with one peak and one stone should be large and small, and stand considerably. Or two or three pieces of peak stone, also should be large and small, seems to have a flying trend. Or several pieces, as before; two or three big stones must be capped, "Su's landscape (mountain and moon garden). The selection and stacking of peak rocks must be in harmony with the whole shape of the mountain, and the scale is appropriate. The lofty and steep mountain form should be sharp and steep. Rockery peaks are stacked horizontally, like cirrus clouds in landscape paintings. In this way, the erection of rockery peaks is like the rising of auspicious clouds, which can achieve better aesthetic effect. The distinction between ridges and headlands is relative, and the boundaries between them are not very clear. But the hills and peaks are continuous, "not uniform, nor pen shelf type, high or low, with chaos, no row ratio is good"
  (2)崖、岩:
  (2) Cliffs and rocks:
  现陡险峭拨之美,而且石壁的立面上是题诗刻字的最佳处所。诗词石刻为绝壁增添了锦绣,为环境增添了诗情。如崖壁上再有枯松倒挂,更给人以奇情险趣的美感。关于岩崖的理法,苏氏山水(山月园)已有成功的经验。在黄山《新安大好山水》中有:“如理悬岩,起脚宜小,渐理渐大,及高,使其后坚能悬。斯理法古来罕有,如悬一石,又悬一石,再之不能也。予以平衡法,将前悬分散后坚,仍以长条堑里石压之、能悬数尺,其状可骇,万无一失。”
  Now the beauty of steep and precipitous plunge, and the facade of the stone wall is the best place for inscribing poems and inscriptions. The stone carvings of poems and lyrics add splendor to the cliff and poetic sentiment to the environment. If the cliff wall hangs upside down again, it will give people a sense of beauty of wonder and adventure. Su's Landscape (Mountain Moon Garden) has had successful experience in the theory and method of rock cliff. In Huangshan's "Xin'an Dahao Landscape", there are: "If the rock is suspended, the starting point should be small, gradually increasing, and high, so that the latter can be suspended. Slipfa has been rare in ancient times, such as hanging a stone, hanging a stone, and then can not. The balance method is used to disperse the front suspension and the back suspension, and still press it with a long cut stone, which can be suspended for several feet. The shape of the suspension is horrible and it is absolutely infallible.
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  (3)山道:
  (3) Mountain Road:
  山道是山体的一部分,随谷而曲折,随崖而高下,虽刻意而为,却与崖壁、山谷融为一体,创造假山可游、可居之意境。
  The mountain road is a part of the mountain body. It twists and turns with the valley and goes up and down with the cliff. Although deliberately, it integrates with the cliff and the valley to create the artistic conception of the rockery that can be traveled and inhabited.
  假山设计造景风格。有雄壮磅礴也有清新婉约,所谓假山其实不假,其气质甚至胜出真山。人说“风景如画”,意谓画之景可以取舍,胜于风景,其理一样。假山造型,轮廊线须有变化,变化中又须求得均衡。山不在高,贵有层,这时候就要看您的偏好。在庭院中给您最佳的构建效果。 与真山不同,苏氏山水山(山月园)用这些天然的假山石经过设计堆叠出更有意境的“势”、“山体”并伴随着绿色植物与池塘景观。让大自然呈现在您的眼前。使得人们足不出户就可以一睹大自然的神韵与精髓。
  Rockery design and landscaping style. There are magnificent and fresh and graceful, so-called rockery is not true, its temperament is even better than the real mountain. People say that "the scenery is picturesque", which means that the picturesque scenery is better than the scenery, and the reason is the same. The shape of rockery must be changed and the balance must be found in the change. Mountains are not high, noble layers, this time depends on your preferences. Give you the best construction effect in the courtyard. Unlike the real mountain, Sushi Mountain (Mountain Moon Garden) uses these natural rockeries to design and stack more artistic "momentum" and "mountain body" accompanied by green plants and pond landscape. Let nature appear before your eyes. So that people can get a glimpse of the charm and essence of nature without leaving home.
  (4)谷:
  (4) Valley:
  山谷是掇山中创作深幽意境的重要手法之一。山谷的创作,使山势宛转曲折,峰回路转,更加引人入胜。 大多数的谷,两崖夹峙,中间是山道或流水,平面呈曲折的窄长形。个园的秋山,在主山中部创造围谷景观的确别具特色。人在围谷中、四面山景各不相同,而且此处是观赏主峰的极佳场所,空间的围合限定,使得“视距缩短,仰望主峰,雄奇挺拔,突兀惊人”。
  Valley is one of the important ways to create a deep and secluded artistic conception in Longshan Mountain. The creation of the valley makes the mountain situation twists and turns, and the peak circuit turns more attractive. In most valleys, the two cliffs confront each other, with mountain paths or running water in the middle, and the plane is narrow and long and tortuous. The autumn hills of the individual gardens are indeed unique in creating the surrounding valley landscape in the middle of the main mountain. People in the valley and around the mountain scenery are different, and here is the best place to view the main peak, the space enclosure restriction, making "shorter visual distance, looking up to the main peak, surprising and upright, abrupt".