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有关园林景观的生态环境系统

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-21-212-1.html  更新时间:2019-03-22
住宅小区的生态景观美表现在它能结合所处的地理环境,创造一个能与整个城市景观相协调,追求自然真趣,赋予居民一种清新宜人,地灵人杰的心理感受。营造天时、地利、人和的综合景观感受,这就要求设计师在进行住宅小区的景观设计时要立足于合理地建立四大系统,即绿化生态系统、景观形象系统和户外休闲系统,交通组织系统,形成一个完整的优美型环境系统。
The beauty of the ecological landscape of residential quarter is reflected in its ability to combine the geographical environment, create a harmony with the whole urban landscape, pursue the true interest of nature, and endow residents with a fresh and pleasant psychological feeling. To create a comprehensive landscape feeling of time, location, people and so on, it requires designers to base their efforts on the rational establishment of four major systems in the landscape design of residential districts, namely, green ecosystem, landscape image system and outdoor leisure system, traffic organization system, to form a complete and beautiful environment system.
1、绿化生态系统
1. Greening Ecosystem
随着现代社会发展速度的日益加剧与人们环境意识的提高,居民对小区的环境质量日趋重视。在这种形势下,景观设计师更应充分认识到:21世纪的城市人居环境必须在城市发展和城市生态中求得平衡,是“质”与“量”的结合。作为住宅小区,绿化景观设计就显得尤为重要了。在住宅区中,绿化犹如呼吸系统,能起到空气净化和屏蔽作用。已成为提高住宅小区环境质量,创造健康小区必不可少的有机要素。
With the increasing development of modern society and the improvement of people's environmental awareness, residents pay more and more attention to the environmental quality of residential areas. In this situation, landscape architects should fully realize that the urban human settlements environment in the 21st century must balance urban development and urban ecology, which is the combination of "quality" and "quantity". As a residential district, green landscape design is particularly important. In residential areas, greening is like the respiratory system, which can play the role of air purification and shielding. It has become an indispensable organic factor to improve the environmental quality of residential quarters and create healthy ones.
合理的住宅小区绿化设计,是将建筑、绿化与小区居民的活动作为一个整体考虑,形成居民能溶入其间,有机运行的居住环境生态机制,实现“人与自然共存”。而目前很多的住宅小区却存在着设计师在进行栽植配置时,一提笔便是色带拼花,处处是剪切出的树篱、灌木球,要不就是空荡荡的草坪与大片的铺装连在一起,这样的设计不仅营造不出舒适的景观效果,反而看上去零零散散,不中不洋,单调乏味。住宅小区中的植物配蛊应该提倡尽量保持原有树种,合理地利用当地树种,而不要一味地追求使用其他地域的树种。长期以来。因为欧美的景观环境设计非常注重植物空间的营造,使得我们国内的景观设计师在外来设计的影响之下形成了只要使用了欧美设计师常用的热带或亚热带植物就是现代景观绿化系统设计的观念,却不知任何设计都要尊重当地的自然条件,这也是为什么这几年来,很多有良知的设计师提出反对“大树进城”的原因J.
Reasonable greening design of residential district is to take the activities of building, greening and residents as a whole, to form an ecological mechanism of residential environment in which residents can dissolve and operate organically, so as to realize "coexistence of man and nature". At present, many residential districts have designers in the planting configuration, a pen is ribbon patchwork, cut out hedgerows, shrub balls everywhere, or the empty lawn and a large area of pavement together, such a design not only can not create a comfortable landscape effect, but looks scattered, not foreign, monotonous. The plant maggots in residential districts should be advocated to keep the original species as far as possible and make rational use of the local species, rather than blindly pursuing the use of trees in other areas. For a long time. Because the landscape environmental design in Europe and America pays great attention to the construction of plant space, so that our domestic landscape designers have formed the concept of modern landscape greening system design as long as they use tropical or subtropical plants commonly used by European and American designers, but they do not know that any design should respect the local natural conditions. This is why, in recent years, it is very important for us to use tropical or subtropical plants. Many conscientious designers put forward the reason why they oppose "Big Tree Entering the City".
要想使一个住宅小区在植物配置上形成自身与众不同的特色,在绿化景观系统设计上要考虑以下几个方面:首先应讲求植物的层次,从低向高依次为草皮、地被、灌木、小乔木、大乔木,配合地形,围合出丰富的绿色空间;其次在植物的种类选择上,应该尽量采用当地的本土植物,避免使用过多的外来植物而形成植物“假活”现象;再者提倡参与性和生态性,多种植纵向生长的乔木,控制不可踩踏的草坪面积;最后提倡多种植香化植物,这类植物对人的身心健康能产生有益的影响,可以使小区中的老年人在享受绿色的同时治疗疾病,获得身心健康。
In order to make a residential district have its own unique characteristics in plant allocation, the following aspects should be considered in the design of greening landscape system: firstly, the plant level should be emphasized, from low to high in order of turf, ground cover, shrubs, small trees, big trees, in coordination with the terrain, enclosing a rich green space; secondly, the selection of plant species should be adopted as far as possible. Local plants should avoid using too many exotic plants to form the phenomenon of "false living". Furthermore, they should advocate participatory and ecological characteristics, plant trees vertically, and control the area of lawn that can not be trampled on. Finally, they should advocate a variety of aromatic plants, which can have beneficial effects on people's physical and mental health and can make the elderly in the community enjoy green at the same time. Treat diseases and achieve physical and mental health.
2、景观形象系统
2. Landscape Image System
凯文林奇在<城市意象)一书中提到:“一个高度可意象的城市,应该看起来适宜、独特而不寻常,应该能够吸引视觉和听觉的注意和参与”C4】。可意象性的城市面貌无疑表现在城市的景观形象系统中。
Kevin Lynch mentioned in his book "City Imagery": "A highly imageable city should look appropriate, unique and unusual, and should be able to attract visual and auditory attention and participation" C4. Imaginable urban features are undoubtedly reflected in the urban landscape image system.
作为城市景观的组成部分之一,住宅小区的景观系统也同样需要具备可意象性。何谓景观形象系统,它涵盖以下3个方面:朴实的自然观,即以软质景观为主,硬质景观为辅,利用步道将景观进行合理而自然的串联,避免居住环境在景观设计上一味追求张扬、喧嚣的硬质景观和廉价做作的“艺术”气氛。隐形的广场处理更能将其他的环境因素(地形、水体、植物等)有机地组织在景观空间中,使硬质景观与软质景观融为一体。你中有我,我中有你,用之怡然。设计无痕。二是艺术导向性,通过对建筑风格和小区地形的把握,使设计后的景观效果风格和小区建筑融为一体,在材料、色彩和景观细部的处理上能达到综合的视觉效果。三是集中和分散的设计手法相结合的布局方式进行景观设计,使住宅小区整体形象鲜明但又不失个性。
As one of the components of urban landscape, the landscape system of residential quarter also needs to have imagery. What is a landscape image system, it covers the following three aspects: simple view of nature, that is, soft landscape as the main, hard landscape as the supplement, the use of walkways to connect the landscape reasonably and naturally, to avoid the living environment in the landscape design blindly pursuit of publicity, noisy hard landscape and cheap "art" atmosphere. The invisible square treatment can organize other environmental factors (terrain, water, plants, etc.) in the landscape space more organically, and make the hard landscape and soft landscape integrated. You have me, I have you, with pleasure. The design is seamless. Second, art-oriented, through the grasp of architectural style and district terrain, make the design of landscape effect style and district architecture into one, in the material, color and landscape detail processing can achieve comprehensive visual effect. Thirdly, the combination of centralized and decentralized design methods in the layout of landscape design, so that the overall image of residential quarters is distinct but without losing personality.
3、户外休闲系统
3. Outdoor Leisure System
                                                                济南工程景观
住宅小区的广场或是其他硬质铺装地面所形成的小区居民的活动空间在住宅小区景观设计系统中称之为户外休闲系统更为合适。这一类场地的功能主要在于满足小区居民的社会交往、老人活动、儿童玩耍、散步、健身等需求。在以往的住宅小区的景观中,户外休闲系统这部分的设计往往追求一种视觉的焦点,以大型广场为主,但是这样的设计除了能在视觉上带来一些气派辉煌的感觉之外却不能给小区居民带来使用上的方便。
It is more appropriate to call the activity space of residents in residential area as outdoor leisure system in the landscape design system of residential area.  The functions of this kind of venues are mainly to meet the needs of community residents such as social interaction, elderly activities, children's play, walking, fitness and so on. In the past residential landscape, the design of outdoor leisure system often pursues a visual focus, mainly large square, but this design can not bring convenience to the residents of the residential area, besides bringing some magnificent feeling in vision.
规划设计应从功能出发,以人为本,为居民的使用提供方便和舒适的小空间。设计师在合理理解了地形后所进行的户外空间的
Planning and design should start from the function, people-oriented, and provide convenient and comfortable small space for residents to use. Designer's Outdoor Space after Reasonable Understanding of Terrain