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假山的分层结构

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-21-178-1.html  更新时间:2018-11-06
假山的分层结构
Layered structure of rockery
因为假山结构一般较为复杂,工程量也很大,因此在假山山体施工中,一般选用分层处理的方式,即分为基石、中层及顶层三个部分施工,这样既便利施工,又能使建成的假山富于改变和层次感。
Because the structure of the rockery is generally complex and the amount of work is large, the layered treatment method is usually used in the construction of rockery, which is divided into three parts: the foundation stone, the middle and the top. This method not only facilitates the construction, but also makes the built rockery rich in change and sense of hierarchy.
1基石
1 cornerstones
柱石也即底层。俗称“拉底”。柱石立于根底之上,这就要求其有一个安定的底层。柱石作为“叠石之本”,其所有竖向与横向的承载才能,全看柱石的安顿。柱石大部分都躲藏于地上之下,因为它只要很少一部分露出于地上之上,不须对它的外观形状多作考虑,但因其会遭到简直悉数假山的重力,所以要具有极高的强度。除此之外,为了确保假山山体的稳定性,在拉底上需尽量选用大块且外表平坦的石头,这样也便利施工。
The pillar is also the bottom. Commonly known as "pull bottom". Pillar Stone is on the bottom of the root, which requires a stable bottom. As the foundation of "stacking stone," all vertical and lateral bearing capacity depends on the safety of the pillar. Most of the pillars are hidden under the ground, because as long as a small part of them is exposed to the ground, it does not need to consider its appearance and shape, but because it will encounter the gravity of almost all the rockeries, it must have very high strength. In addition, in order to ensure the stability of the rockery, large and flat stones should be selected as far as possible on the bottom, which is also convenient for construction.
中层
Middle level
坐落柱石之上的中层是叠山的首要构成部分,更是假山造型中的主体部分,其艺术方法丰厚多变,是假山工程中要害也是有难度的一环,其施工质量好坏直接影响到整个假山的外观作用。在详细的施工中,有以下几方面的注意事项:
The middle stratum above pillars is the primary component of overlapping hills and the main part of rockery moulding. Its rich and varied artistic methods are the key and difficult part of rockery engineering. Its construction quality directly affects the appearance of the whole rockery. In the detailed construction, there are the following points for attention:
2山石的联接
2 the connection of mountains and stones
假山公司中层施工中,必定要使上下山石之间的联接严密,这除了要进行大块面积上的闪进,还需防止在下层山石上呈现过多破碎石面。只不过有时候,出于规划者的偏好,为表现假山某些形状上的改变,也会故意预留一些这样的破碎石面。
In the middle-level construction of rockery company, it is necessary to make the connection between the upper and lower rocks tight. In addition to flash in a large area, it is also necessary to prevent too many broken rocks on the lower rocks. But sometimes, out of the preference of planners, some of these broken stones will be reserved deliberately to show some changes in the shape of the rockery.
3形状上的错落有致
3, the shape is random.
假山山体的笔直和水平方向都要富于改变,但也不宜过于琐细,是在总体上大伸大缩,使其错落有致。在中层山石的设置上,要防止呈现长方形、正方形这样严厉对称的形状,而要重视表现每个方向上规矩不同的三角形改变,这样也可使得石块之间搭拉咬茬,进步山体的稳定性。别的,山石要按其天然纹路堆放,确保全体上山石纹路的通畅。
The vertical and horizontal directions of the rockery should be changed, but it should not be too trivial. It should be expanded and contracted in general to make the rockery scattered. In the setting of middle-level rocks, we should prevent the rigid and symmetrical shape of rectangle and square, and pay attention to the change of triangle which shows different rules in each direction. This can also make the rocks to bite stubble and improve the stability of the mountain. In addition, mountains and rocks should be stacked according to their natural veins, so as to ensure smooth access to all the hills.
4山体的平衡
4 balance of mountains
中层,是联接底层和顶层的中心部分,底层是根底,要确保其对整个上部有满足的承载力,而到中层时,则得考虑其自身和上部的平衡问题了。譬如,在假山山崖的规划中,山体需求一层层往外叠加,这样就会使山体的重心前移,所以这时就使用数倍于前沉重心的重力将前移重心拉回本来重心线。
The middle layer is the central part connecting the bottom layer and the top layer, and the bottom layer is the foundation. To ensure that it has a satisfactory bearing capacity for the whole upper layer, the balance between itself and the upper layer must be considered when the middle layer is reached. For example, in the planning of rockery cliffs, the mountain body needs to be stacked layer by layer, so that the center of gravity of the mountain body will move forward, so the gravity of the forward center of gravity will be pulled back to the original center of gravity by several times the weight of the front.
济南假山制作
5美化相映、山水结合
5 beautify landscapes and combine landscapes
山无草不活,没有花草树木相映,假山就会光溜溜的,显得板滞而缺乏活力。所以在堆砌假山时,要按照规划要求,在恰当的当地预留栽培穴,待假山全体结构完工后栽培花草树木,到达更好的欣赏性。假山建筑过程中,有时还需预留管道,用于规划喷泉和其它排水设备。再在假山建成后,在假山周围必定范围内,建筑水池,用太湖石或黄石驳岸,把山上流水引进池中,使得树木、山水相映生趣,添加假山的欣赏性。
Without grass, flowers and trees, the rockery will be bare, dull and lacking vitality. Therefore, when building rockery, we should reserve cultivation holes in proper place according to the planning requirements, and cultivate flowers, plants and trees after the completion of the whole structure of rockery, so as to achieve better appreciation. In the process of rockery construction, pipes are sometimes reserved for planning fountains and other drainage equipment. After the completion of the rockery, in a certain range around the rockery, water pools will be built, and water from the mountains will be introduced into the pool with Taihu stone or Huangshi revetment, which will make the trees and mountains interesting and add appreciation to the rockery.
顶层
Top floor
顶层即假山的上面部分,是重要的欣赏部分,这也是它的首要作用,无疑应作要点处理。顶层用石,无疑应选用姿势漂亮、纹路的石块,主峰顶的石块体积要大,以彰显假山的气势。在顶层用石选用上,不同峰顶要求如下:
The top part, the upper part of the rockery, is an important part of appreciation, which is also its primary role and should undoubtedly be dealt with in key points. The top stone should undoubtedly be chosen with beautiful posture and veins. The volume of the stones on the top of the main peak should be large to show the momentum of the rockery. In the selection of stones at the top level, the requirements for different peaks are as follows:
6堆秀峰
6 heap of Xiufeng
其特色在于使用其巨大的体积显示出来的强壮压力,镇压大局。峰石自身可用单块山石,也可由块石拼接。峰石的安顿要确保山体的重心线笔直底面中心,均衡山势,确保山体稳定。但同时也要注意到的是,峰石选用时既要能表现其作用,又不能体积过大而压垮山体。
Its characteristic is to use its huge volume to show the strong pressure to suppress the overall situation. The peak stone itself can be used as a single stone or a stone block. The summit of the peak should ensure that the center line of the mountain is straight and the center of the bottom is balanced, so that the mountain is stable. But at the same time, it should be noted that the selection of peak rocks should not only show its role, but also not be too large to collapse the mountain.
7流云峰
7 flow cloud peak
流云峰偏重于作法上的挑、飘、环、透。因为在中层已大体有了较为安定的安置,所以在收头时,只需将环透飘动的中层合而为一。峰石自身能够作为某一挑石的后坚部分,也可完结一个新的环透体,既确保叠石的,又确保了其流云或轻松的感觉不被损坏。
Liu Yunfeng focuses on picking, floating, ring and penetration in practice. Because the middle layer has been generally more stable placement, so in the end, only the middle layer of the ring drift into one. Peak stones themselves can be used as the backbone of a certain stone pick, or a new ring penetrator can be completed, which not only ensures that the stacked stones, but also ensures that their flow clouds or relaxed feelings are not damaged.
8剑立峰
8 swords peak
剑立峰,顾名思义,就是用竖向条石纵立于山顶的一种假山安置。这种型式的特色在于使用剑石构成竖向瘦长直立的假山山顶,然后表现出其陡峭挺立、刺破彼苍的气势。关于这种型式的假山,其峰石下的根底必定要非常结实,石块之间也要严密联接,牢牢卡住,确保峰石的稳定和。
Jian Lifeng, as the name suggests, is a rockery with vertical stones standing on the top of the mountain. This style is characterized by the use of swordstone to form a vertical, slender and erect top of the rockery, and then show its steep and upright momentum, piercing the other sky. With regard to this type of rockery, the roots under its peaks and stones must be very strong, and the stones should be closely connected and firmly stuck to ensure the stability and harmony of the peaks and stones.
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In summary, all the Jinan Jinxiu Landscape Company provide, want to know more about Jinan rockery production knowledge, welcome to pay attention to our website: http://wwsdjnjingguancom, thank you for your support!