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假山在中国古典园林中的地位

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-20-33-1.html  更新时间:2017-04-15
  中国园林是一种自然式山水园林,追求天然之趣是中国园林的基本特征。在造园中掇石叠山被列为造园的第一要素。由于私家园林空间的局限性,这就要求造园者充分利用空间造出咫尺山林的意境。
  Chinese garden is a kind of natural landscape garden, pursue natural interest is the basic feature of Chinese gardens. In building a garden Duo stone piling is listed as the first element of landscape. Due to space limitations of private gardens, which requires the landscape, make full use of space build near mountain forest artistic conception.
  水以山为面,水得山而媚;山者,天地之骨也。因而,造园必须有山,无山难以成园。自然园林往往选址于自然山水佳境,外借自然山林成景;私家园林往往建在村镇人口密集之处,无山水可借,只得掇石叠山。因而,私家园林往往在不太大的空间范围内,再现自然山水之美,有不落人工斧凿痕迹,达到“虽由人作,宛自天开”,在咫尺之地,创造出“多方胜景,咫尺山林”的园林艺术。故山景是构成中国园林的五大要素之一,五大要素(叠山造景,理水造景,建筑造景,花木造景,动物造景)。正如计成所说:“余七分之地,为垒土者四,高卑无论,栽竹相宜”。
  For surface water in mountain, mountain and water of luck, The bone also mountain, heaven and earth. Therefore, must have mountain landscape, is impossible mountain into the garden. Natural landscape often sited in natural landscape, checked out the natural forest into view; Private gardens are often built villages and towns in the densely populated place, not landscape can be borrowed, Duo stone piling. Therefore, private garden often without too much space range, represent the beauty of the natural landscape, has no artificial trace, chisel to achieve "by people, wan since opening day", in the land of the near, create a "surface, stone forest" garden art. So the mountain is one of the five elements of Chinese gardens, the five elements (fold mountain landscape, water landscape, landscape architecture, garden landscape, animals, landscape). As meter into said: "more than seven points, four for the base soil, high low however, planted bamboo fitting for".
  正是这些特性,才表达出园林中山景的无穷魅力。作为园林中独特一景——山景,与水景一样有着它独特的观赏价值。从我国现存的皇家园林到私家园林,无一例外的都有假山的堆筑,石质假山和土质假山的堆筑,以它特有的美的方式表达出来。在自然式园林中占据着重要的地位。它造形多样,易于和周围景物协调统一,同时它灵活,巧于变化,丰富了园林的景观,增加了园林空间和层次感。
  It is these characteristics, to express the endless charm of mountain landscape. As a unique one scene in the garden - mountain, as well as water scene has its unique ornamental value. From the royal garden of our country's existing to private gardens, rockeries piled up, are no exception, are to stone rockery and soil rockeries piled up, with its beautiful way to express it. In the natural garden occupies the important position. Plastic diversity, it is easy to and the surrounding landscape harmonious and unified, it is flexible at the same time, changes in opportunely, enrich the landscape, the increased the garden space and administrative levels.