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济南假山塑石叠石技术您了解吗?

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-20-234-1.html  更新时间:2019-06-26
  塑石假山在中国园林中,最常见的是土石。但以石材为主要材料的塑石假山在杭州园林中比较多见。但是假山石叠的选择是假山石塑化的非常重要的。
  In Chinese gardens, the most common type of plastic rockery is earth and stone. But plastic rockery rockery with stone as the main material is more common in Hangzhou gardens. However, the choice of the stack of rocks is very important for the plasticization of rocks.
  但今天我们要介绍的是:假山塑石技术又称塑石技术。由于天文位置的不同,常将其分为南北两派,即以北京为中心的北方学派和以太湖流域为中心的江南学派。而北京塑石假山自古以来就多“以吴人为基地”,江南叠山工匠大多为江南人,如清初的李渔、张莲、张然父子都是江南人,并在北京留下塑石假山作品。后来人们在北京专门以叠假山为业,人们称其为“山子张”,并祖传:安、联、结、斗、挂、针、挂、剑、牌、挂“十字头”。散布也有“一联斗挂,拼挂牌剑挂,背飘飞峰挂,钉承重钩榫,填缝垫杀,上压转换”的“三十字公式”。江南地区分布有折、竖、垫、拼、挑、压、钩、挂、托等“九字公式”。其外观手法大致相同,都是假山在堆砌过程中,将山石与山石分离开来,在一些基本的手法和操作上的外观手法。目前,这些基本的叠石技术在塑石假山的施工过程中经常被用到,并被列入我国假山工人职业技能岗位认证标准。其描述如下:
  But today we want to introduce: rockery technology is also known as plastic stone technology. Because of the different astronomical positions, it is often divided into two schools: the North School centered on Beijing and the South School centered on the Taihu Lake Basin. Since ancient times, the plastic rockery rockery in Beijing has been mostly based on Wu people. Most of the artisans in the Dishan area in the south of the Yangtze River are from the south of the Yangtze River, such as Li Yu, Zhang Lian and Zhang Ran, whose father and son were from the south of the Yangtze River in the early Qing Dynasty, and left the plastic rockery rockery works in Beijing. Later, people in Beijing specialized in folding rockeries, which they called "Shanzizhang", and their ancestors: An, Lian, Jie, Dou, Hang, Needle, Hang, Sword, Card, Hang "Cross Head". There are also "30-character formulas" of "one-joint bucket hanging, hanging with hanging swords, hanging with flying peaks on the back, nailing load-bearing hooks and tenons, filling and cushioning, and up-pressure conversion". There are nine-character formulas for folding, erecting, cushioning, spelling, picking, pressing, hooking, hanging and supporting in the south of the Yangtze River. The appearance of the rockery is roughly the same, which is the appearance of rockery in the process of stacking, separating the rockery from the rockery, and in some basic techniques and operations. At present, these basic stone-stacking techniques are often used in the construction of plastic rockery rockery, and are listed in the certification standard of professional skills of Chinese rockery workers. It is described as follows:
  假山塑石-假山瀑布景观
  Rockery Sculpture-Rockery Waterfall Landscape
  To secure意为固定一块岩石。在苏州方言中,这一习俗被称为“家”或“艾”。安石主要通过头顶的山石,突出“巧”与“形”,达到假山立面(欣赏)上空空如也的空隙,这就是“小安桥”所说的花园里的叶陀山。
  To secure means to fix a rock. In Suzhou dialect, this custom is called "home" or "Ai". Anshi mainly through the top of the stone, highlighting the "Qiao" and "shape", to reach the facade of the rockery (appreciation) over the empty space, which is "Xiao'anqiao" said in the garden of Mount Yetuo.
  济南假山制作
  Jinan rockery production
  甚至是介于山石和山石之间的程度方向重叠。连石根据山体的自然轮廓、纹理、凹凸、棱角等自然连接,构成自然风化的岩石节理。同时要注意石子与石子之间的折痕和转弯。
  Even between rocks and rocks overlap in degree and direction. According to the natural contour, texture, concave-convex, angular and other natural connections of the mountain, Lianshi constitutes the natural weathered rock joints. At the same time, we should pay attention to the creases and turns between the stones.
  即山石与山石之间的垂直重叠。“连接”要善于利用山石之间的横截面或桩柱,在对接处形成天然的一层接缝,这就是塑石假山设计中所说的水平(度)层结构和垂直层结构的石堆。这就需要用嵌石的方法,停止拼贴,使山顶和山下的石头互相气驰,就像一块石头。
  That is, the vertical overlap between rocks and rocks. "Connection" should be good at making use of the cross-section between rocks or piles to form a natural layer of joints at the joint, which is called the horizontal (degree) layer structure and the vertical layer structure of rockfill in the design of plastic rockery rockery. This requires the use of inlay method, stop collage, so that the top and the bottom of the mountain stone each other, like a stone.
  它是一种模拟天然岩石被流水侵蚀而形成洞穴的现象。要形成顶部的空中形状的形状,像两只羊用顶部的顶部战斗。这是古代造山者的形象。
  It is a phenomenon that simulates natural rock being eroded by running water to form caves. To form the shape of the top air shape, like two sheep fighting with the top. This is the image of an ancient mountain builder.
  假山塑石-假山瀑布景观工程
  Rockery Sculpture-Rockery Falls Landscape Project
  吊挂是指对山石的主要欣赏,由于其侧面平整或形状不好,会用另一侧的山石停止拼接悬挂,作为补偿,以加强石的平面观,称为“吊挂”。泥石可应用于山石茬的咬合,然后在顶部用叠加的方式固定,如果山石茬的侧面匹配光滑,可使用水泥等停止粘结。
济南假山制作
  Hanging refers to the main appreciation of rocks. Because of its flat side or bad shape, it will stop splicing and hanging with rocks on the other side as compensation to strengthen the plane view of rocks, which is called "hanging". Debris can be applied to the biting of the stubble, and then fixed by superposition at the top. If the side of the stubble matches smoothly, cement can be used to stop the bonding.
  放一些较小的石块,根据假山的外观要求,放一个较大的身体。但是小石头太多,容易显得琐碎,又不容易巩固,所以把石头放在一起一定要在大石头之间,并注意大山石头的纹理、颜色等,使纹理、轮廓匹配、过渡自然。
  Put some smaller stones, according to the appearance of the rockery, put a larger body. But there are too many small stones, which are easy to appear trivial and not easy to consolidate. So when putting the stones together, we must pay attention to the texture and color of the stones, so as to make the texture and outline match and transit naturally.
  挂和挂都是垂直挂石,挂的是“挂”,侧挂的是“挂”。“悬挂”是仿照自然溶洞中钟乳石屋面悬挂的方式。悬浮石通常位于洞穴顶板的中间,其两侧由顶板支撑。还有用来靠近内墙的屋顶,和南京南山詹园水里倒挂的石头,味道特别。“挂”常用于山顶上的石头等底端进行化妆,或挂在山壁上,用它来形成一种奇特而危险的欣赏。普通挂石体积不宜过大,以保证安全。
  Hanging and hanging are vertical hanging stones, hanging is "hanging", hanging sideways is "hanging". "Suspension" is a way to imitate the stalactite roof suspension in natural karst caves. Suspended rock is usually located in the middle of the cave roof, and its sides are supported by the roof. There are also roofs near the interior walls and rocks hanging upside down in the Zhanyuan River in Nanshan, Nanjing, which have a special taste. "Hang" is often used to make up at the bottom of the stone on the top of the mountain, or hang on the wall, to form a strange and dangerous appreciation. Ordinary hanging stones should not be too large to ensure safety.
  济南假山制作
  Jinan rockery production
  假山塑料石-人造瀑布
  Rockery Plastic Stone - Artificial Waterfall
  挂石倒挂是“挂”,挂与挂一样,但南北的称谓不同。
  The hanging stone upside down is hanging, hanging and hanging are the same, but the appellations of North and South are different.
  卡是一块悬挂在两块山岩之间的小石头。这种做法必须左右两边的山上的石头构成大下小楔口,然后放入楔口卡石头,它只是一个辅助衬托点景观技术,常用于小假山,因为多年的风化和大型假山,容易下降,形成风险,所以少用。
  The card is a small stone suspended between two rocks. This method must be made up of the rocks on the left and right sides of the mountain, and then put into the wedge to clip the rocks. It is only an auxiliary foil point landscape technology, often used in small rockeries, because the weathering of many years and large rockeries, easy to decline, risk formation, so less use.
  一种像剑一样直立的方式。山石剑立,立而为峰,可构成一触即发的潜力,但必须剪裁得当,规划自然,防止过于单一或过于密集。拔地而起的尖峰,如带着古老的松柏竹林,往往成为一道有趣的风景线。
  A way of standing upright like a sword. Mountains, rocks, swords and peaks can constitute an imminent potential, but it must be tailored properly, planned naturally and prevented from being too single or too dense. Peaks rising from the ground, such as old pine and cypress bamboo forests, often become an interesting landscape.
  用一般山石的横向纹理和压力作横向拾取,以形成飞翔的潜力,故又称“出”。“单挑”是石头挑出来的,“重挑”是石头下挑出来的支撑。假如要逐层进行,以进行石的1/3为宜,最好是进行的长度。摘石一定要选择一些质地坚固而无暗裂的山石,其鉴别方法,一般以轻敲听声鉴别。如果是两头挑选,挑选石头更需要小心。现在苏州假山工匠也有使用立石采石的,但难度较高。“选”的关键是“巧安后简”,“春侯千选,侯简藏”,所以它与“压力”有着密不可分的关系。“关注压力”,山的形状的石头将形成重心转变,偏向一侧,那么有必要使用山上石头停止压力,使其重心稳定,所以石头尤其是达到巩固和无缝的压力是最重要的。常见的假山或一群一群山峰,最后整体稳定性是依赖于山顶石头压力来完成,在这个时候,选择一些体积比较大的需求,一个好的高级石头的外观匹配压力,所以会出现稳定的和美丽的。
  The lateral texture and pressure of common rocks are used to collect them horizontally in order to form the potential of flying, so they are also called "out". "Single pick" is picked out by stones, and "heavy pick" is the support picked out under stones. If it is to be carried out layer by layer, it is better to carry out 1/3 of the stone, preferably the length of the stone. When removing stones, we must choose some stones with strong texture and no dark cracks. The identification method is usually based on tapping sound. If you choose at both ends, you need to be more careful in choosing stones. Nowadays, the craftsmen of Suzhou rockery also use standing stones to quarry, but the difficulty is higher. The key to "election" is "Qiao'an Houjian", "Qianxuan Houqianxuan, Hou Jianzhai". Therefore, it is closely related to "pressure". "Pay attention to pressure", the shape of the stone will form a center of gravity change, to one side, then it is necessary to use the stone on the mountain to stop the pressure, to make the center of gravity stable, so the stone especially to achieve consolidation and seamless pressure is the most important. Common rockery or a group of peaks, the final overall stability depends on the pressure of the top rock to complete, at this time, choose some larger volume demand, a good high-grade stone appearance matching pressure, so there will be stable and beautiful.
  假山塑石-人工瀑布景观
  Artificial Waterfall Landscape
  浮头置石“浮”。朴氏的使用主要是丰富的先变。漂石的选择,其质地、石材质量、石材颜色等,应与石材相异或协调。在传统上,有时还可以用漂浮的石头处理成各种动物形象;在现代堆石技术,在传统的“乱世佳人”基于折叠方法,和一个新的突破和行为,它经常选择一些规模较小,有一个狭长,薄弯曲,光,如岩石的特性,根据外观设计,应用债券材料和绑定,绑定、卡、剪辑、等等,挂起,等,停止位置,设置,以创造一种石头和石头,空白,与白色的石头或搭接技术的特点,经过《乱世佳人》的处理,假山的轮廓能使假山显得轻盈、空灵、典雅。它主要用于太湖石假山类速写栈。
  Floating head with stone "floating". The use of Park's is mainly a precursor of abundance. The selection of bleaching stone, its texture, quality and color should be different from or coordinated with stone. Traditionally, floating stones can also be used to process various animal images; in modern rockfill technology, traditional "Gone with the Wind" based on folding methods and a new breakthrough and behavior, it often chooses some smaller scale, a narrow, thin bending, light, such as the characteristics of rocks, according to appearance design, bond materials and binding, binding, card, editing, hanging, etc. Stop position, set up, to create a stone and stone, blank, and white stone or lap technology features, after the treatment of "Gone with the Wind", the outline of the rockery can make the rockery appear light, empty and elegant. It is mainly used for sketch stack of rockery rockery in Taihu Lake.
  叠石“以水平岩为叠石”,即以水平岩为停止重叠而施加压力的叠石,以构成水平岩层结构的一种叠石技术,这是传统假山叠石中最常用的方法。如大师级网园“云冈”黄石假山的外观,就是采用“横岩叠石”的主要手法。然而,在具体的堆垛过程中,需要注意石材之间纹理的差异。
  "Horizontal rock is the superimposed rock", that is, the superimposed rock with horizontal rock to stop overlapping and exert pressure to form the horizontal stratum structure is a kind of superimposed stone technology, which is the most commonly used method in the traditional rockery superimposed stone. For example, the appearance of the "Yungang" Huangshi rockery in the master net garden is the main method of "Hengyan superimposed stone". However, in the specific stacking process, we need to pay attention to the texture differences between the stones.
  上面列出的叠石字公式,只是古代叠山工匠在假山外部施工中一些典型的手法,这些手法在实际施工中应敏感使用,千万不要死板、刻意追求。本文所述的叠石技术是中国园林艺术的基本方法。以上是济南假山制作公司为您整理的,想要了解更多,可点击我们网站http://www.sdjnjingguan.com
  The formulas listed above are only some typical techniques used by ancient piling craftsmen in the construction of rockery outside. These techniques should be used sensitively in the actual construction. Never be rigid and purposeful. The technology of stacking stone described in this paper is the basic method of Chinese garden art. The above is organized for you by Jinan Rockery Manufacturing Company. For more information, please click on our website http://www.sdjnjingguan.com.