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当前位置:首页 > 新闻中心 > 新闻中心 > 怎么把园林艺术美应用到假山制作上

怎么把园林艺术美应用到假山制作上

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-20-217-1.html  更新时间:2019-04-19
  中国古典园林建筑是美学史上的一朵奇葩,园林艺术源远流长,清代的扬州园林可谓称做了古代的意境的延续,而园林中假山更是将“虚”“实”意境发挥到了极致。
  Chinese classical garden architecture is a wonderful flower in the history of aesthetics. Landscape art has a long history. Yangzhou gardens in the Qing Dynasty can be described as the continuation of the ancient artistic conception, and the rockery in the gardens has brought the "false" and "real" artistic conception into full play.
  中国园林经过历代的发展,不论是皇家园林还是私家园林都在明清时期得到了空前的发展,园林的美学研究也得到了重视,叶朗沿用了宗白华先生的观点,认为中国古典园林在美学上的最大特点就是重视艺术意境的创造。笔者在观赏扬州园林时生发爱意,感觉身临其境,融自己感情于扬州园林中,甚偏爱园林中的假山,认为其最符合艺术意境创造的特点。
  After the development of Chinese gardens in past dynasties, both royal gardens and private gardens were developed unprecedentedly in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and the aesthetic study of gardens was also paid attention to. Ye Lang followed Mr. Zong Baihua's view that the greatest aesthetic characteristic of Chinese classical gardens was to attach importance to the creation of artistic conception. The author loves Yangzhou gardens and feels immersed in them. He is fond of rockeries in gardens and thinks that they are most in line with the characteristics of artistic conception creation.
  假山塑石-假山瀑布制作
  Fabrication of rockery-rockery waterfall
  扬州园林的“假山园林意境”美
  Beauty of "Artistic Conception of Rockery Garden" in Yangzhou Garden
  扬州地处江淮平原,土地肥沃,处处绿畴沃野,有茂林修竹,奇树名花,却无崇山峻岭,悬崖峭壁。著名园林之一影园主人郑元勋曾在《影园自记》中说过:“予生江北,不见卷石,童子时从画幅中见高山峻岭,不胜爱慕。” 由此可见郑元勋独钟情于扬州平原罕见的高山。我们从文献记载中也可以略观这种现象,扬州人要看山,除了北郊的蜀冈绵延起伏略具山势之外,只有从诗歌中感受崇山峻岭带给人的气势,例如扬州人特别偏好杜牧的诗歌,只因从中可以寻找到那隐隐青山。
  Yangzhou is situated in the Jianghuai Plain, with fertile land and rich green fields. There are Mao forests, bamboo trees and famous flowers, but there are no lofty mountains and cliffs. Zheng Yuanxun, the owner of one of the famous gardens, once said in his film garden self-chronicle: "To give birth to the north of the Yangtze River, there are no scrolls. When a boy sees mountains and mountains in his paintings, he is very fond of them." This shows that Zheng Yuanxun loves the rare mountains in Yangzhou Plain. We can also take a brief look at this phenomenon from the literature records. In addition to the hills in the northern suburbs of Shugang, Yangzhou people can only feel the momentum brought by the mountains from the poems. For example, the Yangzhou people prefer Du Mu's poems, only because they can find the hidden mountains.
  古典园林的美不是一座孤立的建筑物的美,而是艺术意境之美。 因此,假山园林意境的创造和欣赏尤其是本文重点讨论的假山的审美化堆砌就成了园林美学的中心内容。假山中的意境与其他的艺术种类如诗歌、绘画等有所不同。诗歌、绘画的意境是借助于语言或线条、色彩构成的,而假山的意境则是借助于实物(石料)构成的。然而假山的审美价值主要并不在于这些石料本身,而在于通过这些石料的摆布达到审美性的效果,并且能欣赏到外界无限空间的自然之景。刘禹锡作了个最明确的规定:“境生于象外”。这也就是不要停留在有限的孤立的物象中,而要带着个人独特的眼光去感受象外的景象,从有限进入无限。然而假山不是孤立的位于园林中,而是与其他建筑物(亭、台、楼、阁、水、树、花、草等)完美结合成一个有机整体,你中有我,我中有你的营造出一种象外之象、景外之景来。透过假山看湖水看楼阁与置身于景内所观测到效果也就是意境完全不同,比独立的观察物象能够得到更丰富的美的感受。
  The beauty of classical gardens is not the beauty of an isolated building, but the beauty of artistic conception. Therefore, the creation and appreciation of artistic conception of rockery gardens, especially the aesthetic piling of rockery which is discussed in this paper, has become the central content of landscape aesthetics. Artistic conception in rockery is different from other kinds of art such as poetry and painting. The artistic conception of poetry and painting is made up of language, lines and colors, while the artistic conception of rockery is made up of material objects (stone). However, the aesthetic value of rockery lies not in the stone itself, but in the aesthetic effect achieved through the arrangement of these stones, and can appreciate the natural scenery of the infinite space outside. Liu Yuxi made the clearest stipulation: "Habitat is outside the image". That is to say, we should not stay in the limited and isolated objects, but take our own unique vision to feel the scene outside, from the limited to the infinite. However, the rockery is not isolated in the garden, but perfectly integrated with other buildings (pavilions, terraces, buildings, pavilions, water, trees, flowers, grass, etc.) into an organic whole. You have me, I have you to create an out-of-the-picture, out-of-the-scene scene scene. Looking at the pavilion through the rockery is totally different from the effect observed in the scene, that is, the artistic conception. It can get more beautiful feelings than observing the object independently.
  假山塑石-假山瀑布效果图
  Artificial Hill Plastic Stone-Artificial Hill Waterfall Effect Map
                      济南假山制作
  以具体的实物来营造意境容易产生滞碍于物的弊端,妨碍了意境所需之气的生发,限制了“境生于象外”的自由。所以就要寻找一种既有具象之美,又富抽象之意的造园要素。它既是具体之物,可以构置实有的园林空间,又兼具艺术符号的灵动抽象,富于阐发意义的空间。能够以有形沟通无形,从有限跨越无限,创造出于“境生于象外”的意境空间。石就是具备了这种特性的理想材料。无石不成园,石头成为中国古典园林中最基本的造园要素之一,正是因为具备了象外之象、景外之景的生发能力,从而也成为园林意境营造的最佳要素。它既是古典园林的工程建筑材料,也是重要的造景材料、装饰材料。通过建筑与造景又在园境营造中发挥着不可替代的独特作用。古代造园家通过对石头的巧妙利用和设置体现出中国园林独特的山水自然情趣,也营造出了独具华夏审美特色的园林意境。
  It is easy to create artistic conception with concrete objects, which hinders the development of Qi needed by artistic conception and restricts the freedom of "living outside the image". Therefore, we need to find a kind of garden elements with both concrete beauty and abstract meaning. It is not only a concrete object, but also a flexible abstract space with artistic symbols and elucidating meanings. To be able to communicate visibly and invisibly, from the limited to the infinite, to create the artistic space out of "living outside the image". Stone is the ideal material with this characteristic. Stone is not a garden without stones. Stone has become one of the most basic elements in Chinese classical gardens. It is precisely because it has the ability to grow out of the picture and scenery, and thus it has become the best element in creating the artistic conception of gardens. It is not only an engineering building material of classical gardens, but also an important landscaping material and decorative material. Architecture and landscaping play an irreplaceable and unique role in landscape construction. Ancient gardeners showed the unique natural interest of Chinese gardens through skillful use and setting of stones, and also created a unique landscape artistic conception with Chinese aesthetic characteristics.