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假山制造如何选择设计材质

来源:http://www.sdjnjingguan.com/content-20-195-1.html  更新时间:2019-01-10
假山制造如何选择设计材质
How to Choose Design Material for Rockery Manufacturing
1.造型设计及喷头选择
1. Modeling Design and Nozzle Selection
停止水景的总体设计,应先剖析环境气氛的根本要求,再剖析各种水景方式,分列不同的组合方案,绘制效果图,从中选优。
To stop the overall design of waterscape, we should first analyze the basic requirements of environmental atmosphere, then analyze various waterscape modes, sort out different combination schemes, draw effect maps, and select the best one.
水景形状有静水、流水、落水、喷水等几种这几种形状又可衍生出多姿多彩的变化方式,特别是由于喷头技术的开展,喷水姿势更是变化万千。有了这些素材,再经过专业人员的艺术设计,即可以勾勒出优美的水艺景观。
Waterscape shapes include still water, flowing water, falling water, sprinkler and so on. These shapes can also derive colorful changing ways, especially because of the development of sprinkler technology, the sprinkler posture is more varied. With these materials, and through professional artistic design, you can outline a beautiful water landscape.
另外,不同的景观方式合适不同的使用场景。比方音乐喷泉普通适用广场等集会场所。它是以音乐、水形、灯光的无机组合来给人以视觉和听觉上的美感;同时喷泉与广场又融爲一体,构成了修建的一局部。而住宅区的楼宇间更合适设计溪流盘绕,以表现静谧悠然的气氛,给人以陡峭、松驰的视觉享用,从而营建恼人的生活休息空间。
In addition, different landscape modes are suitable for different use scenarios. For example, music fountains are generally suitable for gathering places such as squares. It is an inorganic combination of music, water form and lighting to give people visual and auditory beauty; at the same time, fountains and squares are integrated, forming part of the construction. The residential buildings are more suitable to design streams to express the quiet and leisurely atmosphere, giving people a steep, relaxed visual enjoyment, thus building annoying living and rest space.
喷泉设计中喷头的选择很重要。在水景中普遍运用各品种型的喷头,以生成形态万千的水形。目前,国际消费的喷头在质量上存在极大的差别,与国外同类产品比拟,其中的成绩不只是外观、而是存在于设计质量之中。比方某厂家提供的喷头运用参数,就与实践运转数值相去甚远。水景观工程对喷头的要求是水形美观,射流平滑波动。但是国际少数产品的射流不是发散激烈就是毛剃横发;即便同是一批产品,其水形质量也极不波动,除了国产喷头由于小规模消费机械加工精度缺乏的缘由以外,基本成绩是水景观公用喷头设计中没有完善的设计实际和设计根据。因而,我们建议国度专业学会组织有关专家尽快制定出实在可行的设计标准和规范,使我国的水景喷泉行业愈加标准地进一步开展。
The choice of sprinkler head is very important in fountain design. Various types of sprinklers are widely used in water scenery to generate thousands of water forms. At present, there are great differences in the quality of sprinklers consumed internationally. Compared with similar products abroad, the performance of sprinklers is not only in appearance, but also in design quality. For example, the operating parameters of a sprinkler provided by a manufacturer are far from the actual operating values. The requirement of water landscape engineering for sprinkler is that the water form is beautiful and the jet fluctuates smoothly. However, the jet of a few international products is either divergent or haircut horizontally; even for the same batch of products, the water quality is extremely stable. In addition to the lack of processing accuracy of domestic sprinklers due to small-scale consumption machinery, the basic achievement is that there is no perfect design practice and design basis in the design of water landscape public sprinklers. Therefore, we suggest that the National Professional Association organize relevant experts to formulate feasible design standards and norms as soon as possible, so that the water fountain industry in China can be further developed in a more standard way.
济南假山制作
2.土建池体设计
2. Design of Civil Pool
普通罕见的景观水池深度均爲0.6~0.8m,这样作法的缘由是要保证吸水口的吞没深度,并且池底爲一全体的立体,也便于池内管路设备的装置施工和维护。只要在爲表现亲水特点的浅蝶形池体设计时,才采用吸水坑或泵坑。0.6~0.8m的水深实践上存在着较大的不平安性。异样,在儿童戏水池设计中,普通采用的深度爲0.3~0.6m左右,一旦幼儿落入景观池中的将是非常风险的。我们以为较爲适合的水深以0.2~0.4m爲宜。这样做的另一优点是,当水质浊度略高的,给人的觉得依然明澈见底。池壁顶面应可供游人坐下休息,池壁顶面距空中高度普通爲0.30~0.45m,除人工湖外,水面以高于空中爲宜。若水面水位较低,便会有如临深潭的觉得。从亲水的角度动身,较爲适宜的尺度是水面距池壁顶面爲0.2m较爲合理。潜水泵坑或水泵吸水口则只需部分加深以满足吸水条件,泵坑外表可设置篦子,即可遮盖设备又可作爲格栅以阻止大颗粒杂质吸入。从美观的角度动身,池外表应尽量增加外露的管道设备,尤其是垂直设置的溢流管口,它会在水面上升时发生很大的排水吸气声。
Ordinary rare landscape pools are 0.6-0.8m in depth. The reason for this is to ensure the swallowing depth of the suction outlet, and the bottom of the pool is all three-dimensional, which is also convenient for the installation construction and maintenance of pipeline equipment in the pool. Only when the shallow butterfly pool with hydrophilic characteristics is designed, the suction pit or pump pit is used. The water depth of 0.6-0.8m is not stable in practice. In addition, in the design of children's pool, the common depth is about 0.3-0.6m. Once children fall into the landscape pool, it will be very risky. We think that the suitable depth is 0.2-0.4 M. Another advantage of this method is that when the turbidity of the water is slightly higher, people still feel clear. The top surface of the pond wall should be available for visitors to sit down and rest. The height of the top surface of the pond wall from the air is usually 0.30-0.45 M. Except for artificial lakes, the water surface should be higher than that in the air. If the water level is low, it will feel like a deep pool. From the hydrophilic point of view, the more appropriate scale is that the water surface is 0.2m away from the top of the pond wall. Submersible pump pit or pump suction nozzle only need to be partially deepened to meet the water absorption conditions. The pump pit can be equipped with a grate on the surface, which can cover the equipment and act as a grille to prevent large particles from inhaling. From the aesthetic point of view, the pool should be as much as possible to increase the appearance of the exposed pipeline equipment, especially the vertical overflow nozzle, it will occur when the water surface rises a lot of drainage and inspiration sound.
3.管道材质选择
3. Pipeline Material Selection
较早的工程普通采用热镀锌钢管,但存在许多缺乏之处。
Hot-dip galvanized steel pipes are commonly used in earlier projects, but there are many shortcomings.
钢管在运用一段工夫后,外表锈蚀,影响美观,且运用寿命较混凝土构造短一倍以上。较好的管材是铜管和不锈钢管,但造价较高。UPVC管材可防止锈蚀,但存在耐候性差,且光间接照射减速变色老化等成绩。若将其暗埋在池底板下(南方运用时留意布设坡度并在低端设放空阀,夏季需排水防冻),而在暴露局部采用铜或不锈钢管材,应是较爲合理经济的处理方法。据厂家引见,在无日光直射条件下,UPVC管的运用寿命可达五十年。
After a period of time, the steel pipe is rusted, which affects the appearance of beauty, and its service life is more than twice shorter than that of concrete structure. Copper pipe and stainless steel pipe are better, but the cost is higher. UPVC pipe can prevent rust, but it has poor weather resistance and slow down and discoloration aging by indirect light irradiation. If it is buried underneath the bottom of the pond (pay attention to the gradient and set up a vent valve at the lower end of the pond in the south, drainage and freeze-proof in summer) and copper or stainless steel pipe is used in the exposed part, it should be a more reasonable and economical treatment method. According to the manufacturer, the service life of UPVC tube can reach 50 years without direct sunlight.
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